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Ο άγνωστος δεύτερος Πύργος της Θεσσαλονίκης και το θαλάσσιο τείχος

Φωτογραφία ντοκουμέντο από τη Θεσσαλονίκη με παραθαλάσσια τείχη! Σπάνια απεικόνιση της πόλης από το σημείο του Λευκού Πύργου το 1864.

Μια πανοραμική φωτογραφία της Θεσσαλονίκης, που χρονολογείται περίπου το 1860 και απεικονίζει τα παραθαλάσσια τείχη της πόλης αποτελεί ένα σπάνιο ντοκουμέντο, μοναδικής αξίας μιας και είναι το μοναδικό αρχείο μέχρι στιγμής που παρουσιάζει την πόλη περιστοιχισμένη από τα τείχη της, πριν γκρεμιστούν για να ανοίξει το μέτωπο της πόλης προς την θάλασσα. Τα τείχη της Θεσσαλονίκης είχαν συνολικό μήκος 8 χιλιόμετρα και ύψος 10 με 12 μέτρα. Είχαν σχήμα τραπεζίου με βάση το θαλάσσιο τείχος και τους δύο κάθετους βραχίονες, ανατολικά και δυτικά, που κατέληγαν σε τριγωνική ακρόπολη. Άρχισαν να χτίζονται από τον βασιλιά της Μακεδονίας Κάσσανδρο μετά την ίδρυση της πόλης το 315 π.Χ., ενισχύθηκαν από τους Ρωμαίους και την οριστική μορφή πήραν τον 4ο μ.Χ. αιώνα από τον Αυτοκράτορα Θεοδόσιο. Το θαλάσσιο τείχος και το τμήμα του ανατολικού τείχους, από την οδό Αγίου Δημητρίου ως τον Λευκό Πύργο, αλλά και το δυτικό τείχος, στην περιοχή της πλατείας Δημοκρατίας, κατεδαφίστηκαν σταδιακά από το 1873 ως το 1911 για την επέκταση της πόλης και τη διάνοιξη λεωφόρων.

Τα τείχη συμπληρώθηκαν και συντηρήθηκαν πολλές φορές κατά τους βυζαντινούς αιώνες και την περίοδο της Τουρκοκρατίας. Στη φωτογραφία σημειώνονται οι χρήσεις εκείνης της εποχής αλλά και που βρίσκονται οι σημερινές οδοι....
Τα τείχη συμπληρώθηκαν και συντηρήθηκαν πολλές φορές κατά τους βυζαντινούς αιώνες και την περίοδο της Τουρκοκρατίας. Στη φωτογραφία σημειώνονται οι χρήσεις εκείνης της εποχής αλλά και που βρίσκονται οι σημερινές οδοι.

Το φωτογραφικό ντοκουμέντο Η φωτογραφία αναρτήθηκε από την ομάδα του Facebook «Παλιές φωτογραφίες της Θεσσαλονίκης«. Ένας από τους διαχειριστές της σελίδας, Ζαχαρίας Σεμερτζίδης διευκρίνησε ότι πρόκειται για την μοναδική μέχρι σήμερα φωτογραφική αποτύπωση της παραλίας της Θεσσαλονίκης πριν από την κατεδάφιση του παραθαλάσσιου τείχους. Υπάρχει η εκτίμηση ότι ελήφθη στα μέσα της δεκαετίας του 1860 και οπωσδήποτε πριν από το 1867. «Μια ιστορική λήψη, για την οποία όλοι εμείς στις Παλιές Φωτογραφίες της Θεσσαλονίκης αισθανόμαστε δικαιολογημένα υπερήφανοι που έχουμε την ευκαιρία να γνωρίσουμε, να σχολιάσουμε και να την κάνουμε γνωστή στα μέλη μας και σε όλους όσους ενδιαφέρονται για το παρελθόν της πόλης μας».

Η φωτογραφία ανακαλύφθηκε κατά τη διάρκεια έρευνας με λέξη κλειδί το «Szaloniki». Βρισκόταν σε άλμπουμ με αρχεία της Κωνσταντινούπολης, τα οποία είχαν παρουσιαστεί στο Παρίσι το 1867. Ένα αντίγραφο φέρεται να αποκτήθηκε από την αριστοκρατική οικογένεια Festetics, ώσπου τη δεκαετία του 1940 κατέληξε στα Εθνικά Αρχεία της Ουγγαρίας. Η φωτογραφία εκτιμάται ότι τραβήχτηκε από τους αδερφούς Αμπντουλλάχ, διάσημους Αρμένιους φωτογράφους και περιηγητές της οθωμανικής περιόδου, από το ύψος του Λευκού Πύργου.

Που βρισκόταν ο δεύτερος Πύργος της Θεσσαλονίκης πριν γκρεμιστεί μαζί με το θαλάσσιο τείχος. Τι δείχνει η ανάλυση της φωτογραφίας του 1864 για τα χαμένα κτίσματα και που χτίστηκαν τα Λαδάδικα.

Μια δεύτερη ανάγνωση της φωτογραφίας ντοκουμέντο που εντοπίστηκε από την ομάδα «Παλιές Φωτογραφίες της Θεσσαλονίκης» στα Ουγγρικά Αρχεία και απεικονίζει το θαλάσσιο τείχος της Θεσσαλονίκης, πραγματοποίησε η «Μηχανή του Χρόνου» με την βοήθεια του υπεύθυνου του Πολιτιστικού Κέντρου του ΜΙΕΤ Θεσσαλονίκης, αρχιτέκτονα Γιάννη Επαμεινώνδα. Αφορμή στάθηκε η έκθεση που διοργανώνει το Μορφωτικό Ίδρυμα της Εθνικής Τράπεζας στην Βίλα Καπαντζή με θέμα «Το τέλος της παλιάς μας πόλης». Η φωτογραφία αποτελεί μέρος ενός άλμπουμ των Αρμένιων αδερφών Αμπντουλάχ, επίσημων φωτογράφων του Σουλτάνου Αμπντούλ Αζίζ. Τραβήχτηκε μεταξύ 1864 και 1866 από τον Λευκό Πύργο, ενώ εικάζεται ότι πραγματοποιήθηκαν περισσότερες λήψεις από διαφορετικά σημεία, που δεν έχουν ακόμα εντοπιστεί….

Η φωτογραφία αποτελεί μέρος ενός άλμπουμ των Αρμένιων αδερφών Αμπντουλάχ, επίσημων φωτογράφων του Σουλτάνου Αμπντούλ Αζίζ. Τραβήχτηκε μεταξύ 1864 και 1866 από τον Λευκό Πύργο, ενώ εικάζεται ότι πραγματοποιήθηκαν περισσότερες λήψεις από διαφορετικά σημεία, που δεν έχουν ακόμα εντοπιστεί….

Ο Γιάννης Επαμεινώνδας αναφέρεται συνοπτικά στις δύο καταστροφικές πυρκαγιές, του 1890 και του 1917 και περιγράφει το σχέδιο του μηχανικού Βιτάλη για την κατασκευή της νέας προκυμαίας  μετά την κατεδάφιση του τείχους και την επιχωμάτωση της παραλίας.
Ο Γιάννης Επαμεινώνδας αναφέρεται συνοπτικά στις δύο καταστροφικές πυρκαγιές, του 1890 και του 1917 και περιγράφει το σχέδιο του μηχανικού Βιτάλη για την κατασκευή της νέας προκυμαίας μετά την κατεδάφιση του τείχους και την επιχωμάτωση της παραλίας.

Στην πανοραμική λήψη αποτυπώνονται τα θαλάσσια τείχη που βρίσκονται πάνω στην σημερινή οδό Προξένου Κορομηλά μέχρι και τον πύργο της Αποβάθρας, στη σημερινή περιοχή των Λαδάδικων. Η φωτογραφία αποτελεί μέρος ενός άλμπουμ των Αρμένιων αδερφών Αμπντουλάχ, επίσημων φωτογράφων του Σουλτάνου Αμπντούλ Αζίζ. Τραβήχτηκε από τον Λευκό Πύργο, ενώ εικάζεται ότι πραγματοποιήθηκαν περισσότερες λήψεις από διαφορετικά σημεία, που δεν έχουν ακόμα εντοπιστεί. Αποτυπώνονται τα θαλάσσια τείχη της Θεσσαλονίκης, όπως επισκευάστηκαν μετά τον σεισμό του 1829. Διακρίνεται ακόμα η περιοχή από τον Μεβλεβιχανέ μέχρι την παλιά Παλιά Καραντίνα και το πρώτο Τελωνείο στο λιμάνι. Στο βάθος διακρίνονται τα δέντρα του Μπέχτσιναρ και του Δενδροποτάμου. Αυτό που διακρίνει το έμπειρο μάτι του αρχιτέκτονα είναι ο γκρεμισμένος σήμερα Πύργος της Αποβάθρας, ο οκταγωνικός πύργος της Θεσσαλονίκης, αλλά ένα μικρό κομμάτι στεριάς, όπου οι ψαράδες άπλωναν τα πανιά τους και τραβούσαν τα καΐκια τους. Ο προσεχτικός παρατηρητής και γνώστης της παλιάς πόλης εντοπίζει τον μιναρέ του Χαμζά Μπέη στη σημερινή Βενιζέλου και Εγνατία, και το τριώροφο σπίτι της οικογένειας Χαρίση, όπου αποτέλεσε και το πρώτο αγγλικό προξενείο.

Δείτε το βίντεο όπου ο αρχιτέκτων Γ. Επαμεινώνδας περιγράφει στον Χρίστο Βασιλόπουλο την ιστορική φωτογραφία με τα θαλάσσια τείχη της Θεσσαλονίκης:

Ο πίνακας με τα θαλάσσια τείχη και αριστερά τον δεύτερο Πύργο της αποβάθρας. Ο Uberto Mouratore, κόμης του Salerno, είχε στην κατοχή αυτήν την ακουαρέλα του 1825. Πρόκειται για έργο άγνωστου Ιταλού ζωγράφου.
Ο πίνακας με τα θαλάσσια τείχη και αριστερά τον δεύτερο Πύργο της αποβάθρας. Ο Uberto Mouratore, κόμης του Salerno, είχε στην κατοχή αυτήν την ακουαρέλα του 1825. Πρόκειται για έργο άγνωστου Ιταλού ζωγράφου.

Από τη mixanitouxronou.gr

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